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An Experimental Study of Human Hair in Concrete as Fibre Reinforcement

By
G. Ajaya Kumar O. Ganesh Kumar K. Damodar C. Jayasree Simpa Karmakar
Sai Ganapathi Engineering College, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

Abstract— Since the ancient times, many researches and advancements were carried to enhance the physical and mechanical properties of concrete. Fiber reinforced concrete is one among those advancements which offers a convenient, practical and economical method for overcoming micro cracks and similar type of deficiencies. Since concrete is weak in tension hence some measures must be adopted to overcome this deficiency. Human hair is generally strong in tension; hence it can be used as a fiber reinforcement material. Human hair Fiber is an alternative non-degradable matter available in abundance and at cheap cost. It also reduces environmental problems. Also addition of human hair fibers enhances the binding properties, micro cracking control, Imparts ductility and also increases swelling resistance. The experimental findings in our studies would encourage future research in the direction for long term performance to extending this cost of effective type of fibers for use in structural applications. Experiments were conducted on concrete cubes, cylinders and beams of standard sizes with addition of various percentages of human hair fiber i.e., 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% by weight of cement, fine & coarse aggregate and results were compared with those of plain cement concrete of M-20 grade. For each percentage of human hair added in concrete, four cubes, three cylinders and three beams were tested for their respective mechanical properties at curing periods of 3 , 7 and 28 days. Optimum hair fiber content was obtained as 1.5% by weight of cement.

Keywords: Human Hair, Concrete, Fibre Reinforcement

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Report on Concrete Structures Reinforced with FRP Bar

By
Er. Gaurav

Abstract:
Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars have been widely used in civil engineering used as a substitute for steel reinforcement because it has many advantages such as high strength-to-weight ratio, electromagnetic neutrality, light weight, ease of handling and no corrosion. Moreover, the productive technology becomes more and more mature and industrialized so that FRP has become one economic and competitive structure material. Based on the recent researches, this paper mainly introduces progress in the studies on concrete structures reinforced with FRP bars. These contents in this paper includes the bond performance of FRP bars in concrete, Compression Behavior, flexural behavior, and ductility of concrete structure reinforced with FRP bars in the past few years in the world.

Key words:
FRP Bars, Concrete Structure, Bond Performance, Pullout Behavior, Compression Behavior, Flexural Behavior, and Ductility.

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Self Healing Concrete

By
Shubham Sunil Malu

ABSTRACT
Self-healing materials are a class of smart materials that have the structurally incorporated ability to repair damage caused by mechanical usage over time. The inspiration comes from biological systems, which have the ability to heal after being wounded. Initiation of cracks and other types of damage on a microscopic level has been shown to change thermal, electrical, and acoustical properties, and eventually lead to whole scale failure of the material. Usually, cracks are mended by hand, which is unsatisfactory because cracks are often hard to detect. A material (polymers, ceramics, etc.) that can intrinsically correct damage caused by normal usage could lower production costs of a number of different industrial processes through longer part lifetime, reduction of inefficiency over time caused by degradation, as well as prevent costs incurred by material failure. For a material to be defined strictly as self-healing, it is necessary that the healing process occurs without human intervention. Some examples shown below, however, include healing polymers that require intervention to initiate the healing process.

A good way to enable multiple healing events is to use living (or unterminated chain-ends) polymerization catalysts. If the walls of the capsule are created too thick, they may not fracture when the crack approaches, but if they are too thin, they may rupture prematurely.

In order for this process to happen at room temperature, and for the reactants to remain in a monomeric state within the capsule, a catalyst is also imbedded into the thermoset. The catalyst lowers the energy barrier of the reaction and allows the monomer to polymerize without the addition of heat. The capsules (often made of wax) around the monomer and the catalyst are important maintain separation until the crack facilitates the reaction.

There are many challenges in designing this type of material. First, the reactivity of the catalyst must be maintained even after it is enclosed in wax. Additionally, the monomer must flow at a sufficient rate (have low enough viscosity) to cover the entire crack before it is polymerized, or full healing capacity will not be reached. Finally, the catalyst must quickly dissolve into monomer in order to react efficiently and prevent the crack from spreading further.

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Experimental Investigation on Concrete with Replacement of Coarse Aggregate by Demolished Building Waste with Crushed Concrete

By
Vijayvenkatesh Chandrasekaran
Student, Department of Civil Engineering, St. Josephs College of Engineering & Technology, India

Abstract:
Large quantities of construction and demolition wastes are continuing being generated which are just being dumped in the landfills. This requires large areas of land which is becoming difficult to find. The best solution would be to recycle and reuse the demolished waste which would not only help in protecting the environment but also help in dealing with construction wastes. Consequently, it have a grave difficulty to produce ecological toxic waste and in addition, obligatory a huge sum of liberty. That says about the project reuse waste crushed concrete maters (WCC) from the lath wastage of crushed concrete replacing from coarse aggregate 20%, 30%, 40% (WCC), 3% of crushed coarse aggregate (lathe waste) to reduce the generation of demolition wastes. (The analysis of demolished crushed concrete aggregate (DCCA) concrete in regular mold cast is to be ready in (7, 14, 28) days hydration and examination to be conduct lying on concrete. Such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, & flextural strength.) The replacing of coarse aggregate uses of waste mater and required strength attain in the conventional M20 grade concrete.

Keywords – Demolished Crushed Concrete Aggregate (DCCA), OPC (53 grade) cement, Lathe waste, Fine aggregate, coarse aggregate.

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Concept of Zero Energy Building

By
Aswin Kumar Das
Suvendu Parida
Subha Prakash Ratha
Phani Bhusan Panda
Bishnu Prasad Gariagadu
Diptimayee Sahu
Priyanka Sahu
Anubhab Panigrahi

Chapter- 1 Introduction
1.1. General:

Mahatma Gandhi envisioned a society where the man would live in harmony with nature. He Propounded having self-sufficient village communities to achieve this goal, having a civilization built on renewable resources. He insisted for the growth of human beings from every stratum of the society and to avoid wasteful use of resources. It is in the Indian culture system to find use for everything, which may be considered as waste by many. However in the race of rapid urbanization and globalization we have lost these practices leading to unsustainable growth of cities.

As per Figure 1.1, by 2008, 30% of Indian population was living in cities generating 58% of the total GDP of India. It is estimated that by 2030, more than 40% of Indians would be living in urban areas contributing to about 70% of the GDP. The cities are going to be the engines of growth for India to become a developed nation and so, the quality of life needs to be improved for sustaining the growth in the long term. India being the second most populated country in the world has some of the most densely populated cities in the world. The rise in Indian economy in the last couple of decades?has created many job opportunities in the cities leading to a rapid influx of migrants from the rural areas to the urban areas.

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